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    GENIPA AMERICANA

    Botanical Information

    • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
    • Superdivision: Tracheobionta
    • Division: Magnoliophyta
    • lass: Magnoliopsida
    • Subclass: Asteridae
    • Order: Rubiales
    • Family: Rubiceae
    • Genus: Genipa L
    • Species: Genipa Americana L

    Origin and Geographical Distribution
    Genipa Americana is common throughout tropical & subtropical regions of Central & South America. It flourishes
    both on well drained soils and on periodically flooded riverbanks.

    Description

    The Genipa Americana tree stands tall at heights between 10–20 meters (30–65 feet). The trunk is approximately 40 – 80cm
    in diameter (15–30 inches). It is a deciduous tree with abundant foliage, the short-petioled leaves are more highly
    concentrated at the branch apex with an average size of 10-30cm (4 –12 inches). Its yellow or white flowers, about
    4cm in diameter (1.5inches) are tubular in shape, with five petals, they appear in clusters at the base of the leaf.
    The fruit is a globose to ovoid shape, and varies in size and weight from 5-15cm in length by 4-10cm in diameter
    and from 150-400g in weight (that’s 2-6inches in length by 1.5-4 inches in diameter and from 5-14 ounces in weight).
    The pericarp is a white/yellowish colour and around 2.5cm thick (1 inch). The pulp contains the seeds protected by
    mucilaginous membranes. It is the juice from this pulp that contains the active colouring ingredient ‘Genepine’.

    Varieties & Propagation
    There are smaller ‘shrubby’ forms of the Genipa Americana tree, which grow along the riverbanks in Brazil. These
    trees are said to produce fruit all year round, though inedible, the genipine colouring should still be present in
    the small and unripe fruits. The Genipa Americana tree is naturally propagated by seeds, through natural dispersion
    and germination; though it is thought that the reason this tree is so well dispersed is thanks to well planned
    dispersion by indigenous peoples many years ago because if the many valued uses of the Genipa Americana Tree.

    Biochemistry
    The Key biochemicals of Genipa Americana are; Genipine, Manitol, Tannins, Tannic Acid, Tartaric Acid, Genopocidic
    acid, Caterine, Hydatoin, Manit, Caffeine, Calcium.

    Scientific Names
    Preferred Scientific Name: Genipa Americana L
    Other Scientific Names: Genipa americana var. caruto (Kunth) K. Schum, Genipa caruto Kunth, Gardenia genipa Sw., Genipa barbata Presl, Genipa codonocaiyx Standl., Genipa cymosa Spruce, Genipa exelsa K Krause, Genipa grandifolia Pers. Genipa oblongifolia Ruiz & Pav., Genipa pubescens DC., Genipa spruceana Steyerm., Genipa venosa Standl., Genipa nervosa Sprce

    Trade Names
    Jagua, Genipa, Marmalade Box

    Some Common Names
    English; Genipap, Marmalade Box

    Spanish; Jagua, Huito, Genipa, Caruto
    Portuguese; Jenipapo, Mandipa
    French; Confiture de Singe
    Argentinian;ñandipá
    Bolivia; Bí, Nané, Nobirr, Bi grande, Bicito, Totumillo
    Brazil; Jenipapo, Genipapo, Genipopeiro, Jenipá, Jenipaba, Janipopeiro, Jenipapeiro, Janipapo, Cabacu
    Columbia; Jagua, Genipa, Huito, Angelina, Genipapo, Chipara, Chibara, Guanapay
    Costa Rica; Guaitilil, Tapaculo, Guaitilil Blanco, Brir
    Equador; Jagua, Shiño, Sua, Sula, Tsua, Airo-tua, We’e
    French Guyana; Genipa
    Guadeloupe; Genipa
    Guatemala; Irayol, Irayol de Loma, Irayol de Montaña, Crayo, Guali
    Guyana; Lana
    Honduras; Jagua, Irayol
    Mexico; Jagua Azol, Maluco
    Nicaragua; Tapaculo, Gigualtí
    Panama; Jagua, Jagua Negro, Jagua de Montaña, Jagua Blanca, Guayatil Colorado
    Peru; Palo Colorado, Huito, Huitoc, Huitol, Juagua, Yaguayagua, Vito, Vitu
    Paraguay; ñandypa Guasu
    Puerto Rico; Jagua, Genipa, Caruto
    Surinam; Arasaloe, Tapoeripa
    El Salvador; Irayol, Tambor, Tiñadientes, Tiñe-dientes

    Venezuela; Caruto, Xagua, Carcarutoto, Caruto Rebalsero, Guaricha

    Uses

    Fruit – provides a valuable food source for most of the year.

    • Ripe fruit is eaten raw,
    • The fruit is also processed to produce; desserts (e.g. bullet of jenipapo), jams, syrups,
      non alcoholic beverages and sherbets, wines and liqueurs (e.g.huitochado, jenipapada)

    Fruit – provides a valuable source of traditional medicines.

    • Used to treat such ailments as; Colds, sore throats, asthma, chest infections and other respiratory problems
    • Used for its antiseptic, antibiotic, bactericidal and fungicidal properties
    • Used for its insect repelling qualities
    • Used for protection from sunburn

    Fruit – provides a valuable source of natural dye

    • Used to decorate the body
    • Used to decorate fabrics and other natural materials

    Wood – a quick growing sustainable supply with a tree that is native to the Amazon

    • Firewood; relatively young trees, 5 years old
    • Timber; relatively young trees, 10 years old

    Bark – a by-product of firewood and timber

    • High in tannin; used for treating leather
    • Fibres; used for cordage

    Leaves – available all year round

    • Fodder; eaten by cattle


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